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This article draws attention to several problems relating to indigenous ownership of both real and intellectual property, and their related impact upon the well-being and essential dignity of indigenous peoples. Part II of this article introduces the concept of indigenous ownership of real and intellectual property. Part III digs deeper into challenges to indigenous ownership of land, using the Shuar people of Ecuador as a case study. Part IV examines the problem of bioprospecting, as well as some of its implications, and discusses how the problem has affected the Shuar. It additionally summarizes a few steps toward developing an effective strategy to confront the problem of bioprospecting as it applies to the Shuar. Finally, Part V concludes with an analysis of possible strategies to either stem or combat the effects of appropriation of indigenous peoples' land and knowledge.